Ilya Ivanovich Mashkov was born on July, 29th, 1881 in Mikhailovskaya-on-Don village near Volgograd (nowadays Uryupinsk District of the Volgograd Region).
His parents were peddlers. When Ilya was yet a pupil of a three-year parish school, he revealed an interest and talent for inventing various mechanical devices and drawing. But at the age of eleven he was already sent to work. At first he served as an errand boy for a fruit seller, and then worked for a merchant, the owner of shops and factories in the town of Borisoglebsk of the Tambov Province. Later Ilya Mashkov recalled: “Day after day from 7 am till 9 pm I had to be on feet. 14 hours! I hated it all”. The only joy for the boy was to copy icons, painting reproductions, popular prints (see Russian lubok) and make commercial posters. The boy ordered a box of oil paints from a newspaper ad. However, when the art teacher of the Borisoglebsky man's grammar school asked him if he wanted to study drawing, the boy enquired: “Does one learn it?”
In 1890 he entered the Moscow school of painting, sculpturing and architecture, where he studied under V. Serov, K. Korovin, and A. Vasnetsov. As a student Mashkov showed his eccentric character and finally was expelled from the school.
In his student years the artist traveled a lot and visited a number of countries of the Western Europe, as well as Turkey and Egypt.
He adjoined the Russian fauvist artists. In 1910 he took an active part in organization of the first exhibition of Bubnovy Valet and was the member of this famous association of artists and participated in all the later exhibitions. “We wanted our paintings to be mighty, satiated with plentiful colors” - Mashkov said about the purpose of Bubnovy Valet.
Apart from that Ilya Mashkov actively participated in the renewed association of Mir Iskusstva (Realm of Art).
Mashkov’s main genre was still-life, but he also resorted to landscape and portraiture. ...
A review by Virginia Woolf of Leo Tolstoy’s The Cossacks and Other Tales of the Caucasus (translated by Louise and Aylmer Maude), published in the TLS of February 1, 1917.
It is pleasant to welcome Tolstoy’s “The Cossacks” and other tales of the Caucasus to the World Classics. “The greatest of Russia’s writers,” say Mr. and Mrs. Maude in their introduction. And when we read or re-read these stories, how can we deny Tolstoy’s right to the title ? Of late years both Dostoevsky and Tchekov have become famous in England, so that there has certainly been less discussion, and perhaps less reading of Tolstoy himself. Coming back to him after an interval the shock of his genius seems to us quite surprising ; in his own line it is hard to imagine that he can ever be surpassed. For an English reader proud of the fiction of this country there is even something humiliating in the comparison between such a story as “The Cossacks,” published in 1863, and the novels which were being written at about …